Prostaglandin Analysis Service

    Prostaglandins (PG) are a group of lipid compounds with hormone-like effects that exhibit diverse physiological activities in animals. PG are enzymatically derived from fatty acids with 20 carbon atoms and a 5-carbon ring. They belong to a subfamily of eicosanoids and prostanoid class of fatty acid derivatives. PG have two main derivatives: prostacyclin and thromboxane. Prostacyclin is a potent local vasodilator and inhibitor of blood platelet aggregation. It plays an important role in inflammation due to their role in vasodilation. Prostacyclin is typically synthesized in the vascular wall. It serves the physiological function of preventing needless clot formation and regulates the contraction of smooth muscle tissue. Conversely, thromboxane acts as a vasoconstrictor and promotes platelet aggregation, named for its role in clot formation (thrombosis).

     

    PG are found in nearly all tissues and organs in humans and other animals and are produced by almost all nucleated cells. They are autocrine and paracrine lipid mediators on endothelial cells, platelets, uterine, and mast cells. PG are typically synthesized from essential fatty acids (EFAs) within cells. Diacylglycerol generates the intermediate arachidonic acid via phospholipase-A2, which then enters either the lipoxygenase pathway or the cyclooxygenase pathway. The lipoxygenase pathway, active in leukocytes and macrophages, synthesizes leukotrienes. The cyclooxygenase pathway produces prostacyclin, thromboxane, and PG D, E, and F.

     

    Ten typical PG receptors are known for different cell types. PG bind to a subclass of cell surface seven-transmembrane receptors, G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), termed to as DP1-2, EP1-4, FP, IP1-2, and TP, corresponding to the receptors for the respective PG.

     

    These different receptors indicate that PG act on numerous cells and exert various effects, such as causing contraction or dilation in vascular smooth muscle cells, inducing platelet aggregation or disaggregation, sensitizing spinal neurons to pain, inducing labor, lowering intraocular pressure, regulating inflammation, modulating calcium movement, regulating hormones, and controlling cell growth.

     

    MtoZ Biolabs employs robust, reproducible, and sensitive systems for the separation, characterization, identification, and quantification of PG, ensuring reliable, rapid, and cost-efficient analyses.

     

    Services at MtoZ Biolabs

    MtoZ Biolabs offers the following PG analyses:

    1. PGE2

    2. PGF2α

    3. 6-keto-PGF1α

    4. PGD2

    5. TXB2

    6. 12-HHT

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