Leukotriene Analysis Service

    Leukotrienes (LTs) are a group of inflammatory lipid mediators derived from arachidonic acid (AA) via the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) pathway. A characteristic feature of LTs is that they are produced by leukocytes and share a conjugated triene structure. LTs consist of cysteinylleukotrienes (CysLTs) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4). CysLTs contain a cysteine ring, whereas LTB4 is a noncysteine containing dihydroxy-leukotriene. The subtypes of CysLTs include leukotriene C4 (LTC4), leukotriene D4 (LTD4), and leukotriene E4 (LTE4). The biological properties of LTs suggest that CysLTs play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of asthma. Currently, three CysLT1 antagonists are commercially available: Pranlukast, Zafirlukast, and Montelukast. BLT antagonists, specific regulators of LTB4, are still under clinical development.

     

    LTs are derived from AA. They are rapidly produced at inflammation sites through a series of reactions initiated by cytosolic PLA2(cPLA2), releasing AA from nuclear membrane phospholipids. AA binds to the 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP) and is subsequently acted upon by 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO). The active site of 5-LO contains non-heme iron, transitioning from divalent to trivalent during catalysis. 5-LO, in conjunction with molecular oxygen, converts FLAP-bound AA to 5-hydroperoxy eicosatetraenoic acid (5-HPETE), forming the unstable and short-lived intermediate LTA4. LTA4 is converted to LTB4 by the cytosolic enzyme LTA4 hydrolase. Inflammatory cells with complete membrane protein LTC4 synthase, such as eosinophils, basophils, mast cells, and alveolar macrophages, can synthesize CysLTs in response to biological and non-biological stimuli. LTC4 synthase conjugates reduced glutathione at the C6 position of LTA4 to form LTC4. LTC4 synthase is also associated with FLAP in a multi-molecular complex. Both LTB4 and LTC4 are transported to the extracellular space via transport proteins. Once transported, LTC4 is rapidly cleaved by transpeptidase to produce LTD4, which is finally converted to LTE4 by dipeptidase through the removal of glycine.

     

    LTs primarily act on subclasses of G-protein coupled receptors and may also act on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. LTs are involved in asthmatic and allergic reactions and play a role in maintaining the inflammatory response. Certain leukotriene receptor antagonists, such as montelukast and zafirlukast, are used to treat asthma. LTs also play a critical role in the inflammatory response. Certain LTs, such as LTB4, have chemotactic effects on neutrophil migration, aiding in the recruitment of necessary cells into tissues. They also have potent effects on bronchoconstriction and can increase vascular permeability.

     

    MtoZ Biolabs offers reliable, rapid, and cost-effective leukotriene analysis services and utilizes advanced LC-MS/MS systems for high stability, reproducibility, and sensitivity in its separation, characterization, identification, and quantification.

     

    MtoZ Biolabs targeted LC-MS/MS can provide analysis of the following leukotriene compounds

    1. LTC4

    2. LTD4

    3. LTE4

    4. LTB4

    5. 6-trans-LTB4

    6. 6-trans-12-epi-LTB4

    7. 20-Hydroxy-LTB4

    8. 20-Carboxy-LTB4

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